Waterstops For Concrete
Concrete waterproofing structures are only as watertight as the water stops that join them. Waterstops stop leaks before they start… in the joints of concrete structures.
Since 1950, Greenstreak has served the general and architectural concrete construction industry. Innovation, engineering and quality craftsmanship are combined to produce products of choice for the industry’s owners, designers and contractors.
Greenstreak maintains its position of industry leadership by responding to the unique needs of our customers. Greenstreak’s dedicated technical and customer service staffs are active participants in the concrete industry to take advantage of the latest technological advances, communicate with our market and analyze trends.
Centrally located, Greenstreak products are readily available through a dedicated network of Concrete Forming and Accessory Distributors both nationally and internationally.
Typical Structures Requiring Waterstops Include:
- Dams, locks, canals, water reservoirs, and aqueducts
- Water and wastewater treatment facilities
- Primary and secondary containment structures
- Culverts and tunnels
- Storage Tanks
- Retaining walls
- Bridge and deck abutments
- Parking garages
Waterstop Basic Use
Embedded in concrete, across and/or along with the joint, water stops from a watertight diaphragm that prevents the passage of fluid through the joint.
Suggested Waterstop Design Checklist
- Determine structure type
- Verify chemical containment requirements (if any)
- Verify hydrostatic head pressure requirements
- Determine joint type and joint movement requirements
- Verify joinery details of dissimilar or non-symmetrical water stop profiles (consider using one profile throughout to simplify intersections)
- Specify ribbed profile for best water sealing performance
- Specify type and size (by-product number, if possible)
- Specify factory fabrications of intersections and heat welded field butt joints
- Specify a method for securing water stop in position (hog rings, grommets, etc.)
- The industry standard
- Broadest design selection
- Formulated and compounded by Greenstreak
- Manufactured by Greenstreak from only prime resins and all virgin raw materials
- Great inherent elasticity
- Resistant to many waterborne chemicals
- Heat weldable
- Will not discolor concrete or produce electrolytic action
- Suitable for above or below grade applications
All Greenstreak PVC water stops are specially formulated and manufactured to meet or exceed the industry’s standard specifications.
Note: Greenstreak conducts regular testing of materials. Refer to suggested Master Specification for current values.
Independent laboratory tests are available for the following applicable standards:
- Corps of Engineers CRD-C572-74
- Bureau of Reclamation C902
- CH2M Hill
- Montgomery Watson, Inc
- Various State Highway and/or Public Works Department Standards
Installation aids for PVC water stops
Greenstreak offers various features to economically assist and promote proper installation of PVC waterstops. Waterstops must be securely positioned in the forms to prevent deflection or misalignment during concrete placement. This is achieved by tethering the outer flanges of the waterstop to the adjacent reinforcing steel.
The following features are offered to assist this method of installation:
- Tie-Right – most PVC shapes are available with factory applied hog rings
- Punched Flanges – most ribbed shapes are available with punched flanges
- Grommets – selected shapes are available with brass grommets
PVC Waterstop fabrications
PVC waterstop splices, directional changes and intersections are critical components of a quality installation. Specifications requiring factory made fabrications are strongly recommended. Greenstreak can provide homogeneous directonal changes and intersections, leaving only the less difficult straight splices to be welded in the field.
SBR and Neoprene Rubber Waterstops
Greenstreak offers SBR and Neoprene waterstops for applications requiring the physical properties of rubber. These waterstops are manufactured to meet the Corps of Engineers and The Bureau of Reclamation’s specification for rubber waterstops.
Splices, directional changes and intersections are achieved with premolded unions, fittings and a rubber adhesive kit.
Hydrotite is a world renowned hydrophilic waterstop. Composed of modified chloroprene rubber, Hydrorotite expands up to 8 times its original volume when exposed to water. This expansion creates an effective compression seal within joints of limited movement.
Hydrotite is used extensively in sealing concrete construction and control joints, pipe penetrations, precast concrete segments, tunnel lining segments and for repair of existing joints. Hydrotite features include:
- Volumetric expansion up to 8 : 1
- Durable chloroprene rubber composition
- Delay coating to protect fresh concrete
- Composite profiles; controls direction of expansion
- Eliminates special form work
- Installs quickly
- Easy to splice
Leakmaster is a single component hydrophilic urethane sealant/adhesive. Expansion ration of 2:1 makes Leakmaster a natural choice in sealing irregular joints and penetrations; as well as an aid in the installation of Hydrotite profiles.
A flexible butyl rubber and swellable clay waterproofing compound that swells upon contact with water to form a long-lasting compression seal in non-moving concrete joints.
Swellstop requires a 2″ minimum clear coverage from the face of the concrete.
- Foundation walls and slabs
- Precast wall panels
- Pipe connections
- Box culverts
- Utility and burial vaults
- Wet wells
- Portable water tanks
Similar in appearance to Swellstop, but different in nature. Lockstop is a single component self-selaing mastic water stop which prevents moisture from penetrating non-moving concrete joints.
Typical construction joint applications include:
- Foundation walls and slabs
- Pipe connections
- Retaining walls
- Storage tanks
Note: Swellstop and Lockstep are for non-working joints only.
Types of Concrete Joints
Contraction (Control) Joints
Contraction joints are designed planes of weakness to control the location of cracks due to shrinkage of concrete.
Expansion (Isolation) Joint
Expansion joints separate or isolate abutting concrete structures (walls, slabs, footings columns) protecting them from compressive stresses that may develop due to thermal expansion, settlement, creep, live load deflections, drying shrinkage or crush. Differential movement at these joints can be both lateral and transverse.
Construction joints are determined by interruptions in the placement of concrete.
Waterstops For Non-Working Joints
Construction or contraction joints where little or no movement is expected. Ribbled shapes provide a better seal than dumbbell shapes.
Construction or contraction joints where little or no movement is expected.
Ideal for slab-on-grade joints or walls which will be back-filled. Easy to form.
Primarily used in vertical joints where little or no diffirential movement is expected. Does not require split forming and adds a key to the joint. Difficult to use in horizontal joints.
Available in ribbed with center-bulb and dumbbell shapes. Eliminates the need for split form bulkhead.
Used in joints of limited movement, Hydrotite expands with water contact to create a compression seal. Installs quickly.
Used in precast and cast-in-place below grade applications. Swellstop is intended for non-moving joints only.
Provides a waterlight, mastic bond to concrete surfaces in non-moving joints.
Waterstops For Working Joints
Ribbed with Centerbulb
The most versatible type of waterstop available. The centerbulb accommodates lateral, transverse and shear movement. Larger centerbulbs accommodate larger movements.
Dumbbell With Centerbulb
Accommodates lateral, transverse and shear movements. Ribbed shapes provide better sealing characteristics.
Accommodates large movements Upon joint movement the tear web ruptures allowing the U-bulb to deform without putting the material in tension.
Seals joints where new construction meets existing structure. Eliminates the need to saw cut and grout in a conventional waterstop.
Used in repair of existing joints, Hydrotite reduces stress on sealants. Also use where joining new concrete to existing and little movement is expected.
Some directional changes or intersections may not be practical or possible with this style of waterstop.
Once you have determined the joint type, the magnitude of the differential movements and the type of waterstop to meet project requirements, you must select a specific profile from the multitude of shapes. The following are a few of the most commonly specified profiles.
Greenstreak waterstop is manufactured in widths from 4″ to 12″ and in thicknesses from 1/8″ to 1/2″. Over 110 different sizes and profiles are available to meet the most demanding requirements.
Should your project require a special shape, Greenstreak offers the world’s broadest line of waterstop sizes and profiles.
Custom orders will be considered. A waterstop Profile supplement illustrating all of the profiles is available upon request.
Ribbed With Centerbulb
The World’s Number One Injection Hose System
Fuko is a specially designed and patented solid core PVC Injection Hose System which is installed in concrete joints to waterproof and seal any cracks or voids in the joints area. The Fuko System seals joints waterlight and offers a complete maintenance program if leakage appears in the future. When Portland Cement, Microfine Cement, Or Duroseal Injection Resins are selected, the Fuko System can be used for multiple reinjections – a significant advantage over any other hose system available.
It is a solvent-free acrylate resin which swells up to a factor of 1.5 on contact with water. Duroseal Inject is a low visocity resin which penetrates microfine cracks and capillaries to seal them permanently. It is resistant to acids, lyes and many solvents and fuels. Equipment and tools used with Duroseal Inject can be easily cleaned with water.
It is a single component, suspension based microfine cement which is ready for use. Tricodur Si can be mixed at high speed with water to form a cement suspension with low visosity and high penetrating ability. The micro-fineness of Tricodur Si lets it penetrate into microfine cracks (down to 0.05 mm) and seals them reliably. The flow properties of Tricodur Si cement suspension last up to 60 minutes.
Source – SCRIBE